Tuesday, March 19, 2013


Really the only thing that I can say that hasn't been said already (to my knowledge) is, "Make sure to get a partner".

I was one of the very, very few people in the class not to have a partner for the project. I thought I would be fine on my own, but in retrospect it would've been really helpful to have some... help. Collecting the data alone took up so much time. Granted, I was lazy, but it wasn't until the end of eighth week that I had all my data in; and I only ended up with 28 samples!

So be sure to have a partner, and be on top of things.

I guess you should also know exactly what you're doing with your research. My topic was very broad and conclusions were hard to draw from. Be specific, and make sure your questions are specific.

Friday, March 15, 2013

Advice (even though you might just have to learn the hard way)

Okay.  Everyone is going to tell you the same advice.  You already know what that is.  But there is nothing we can say to make you do it.  It's one of those lessons that you may have to learn on your own and then slap yourself in the head during the all-nighter that you pull before the project is due.

I remember being in your position, reading the comments on the blog re: advice, thinking that I am not going to be that student, that I will be okay with time.  Wrong.  This project needs time.  I did not give it the time it deserved, and therefore I did not receive the grade I wanted (to my defense, I was overloading that quarter, so I probably did not have the time required for the project... yet that is still an unacceptable excuse).

So, Student.  Get started on the project-- now.  Plan out small goals as to what you want to conquer that week.  Even though I am bad at my own advice, I am getting better and these methods do help.

Also, focus on the statistical analysis.  I put all of my brain power and energy into the discussion and introduction, because that was what I was interested in (my project was on the labor movement and college students' opinions on labor unions and workers' rights today).  However, this is a stats class.  And Chuck really cares about the stats over any labor history.

Another topic for a research project could be the satisfaction of K students and their majors.
I know I am very displeased with the K College Spanish department.  I would love to have the opportunity to undergo another study and ask K students what they think is important about a Spanish Major and what topics do they think Spanish majors should cover in class (because I do not think it should revolve around literature or a particular writer, which it does).

Regardless of the topic, Chuck is really correct when he says study something that you're interested in.  Because I am all about the labor movement (I worked as a union organizer for the U.A.W.) and even I did not spend enough time on my project.  And I always am fond of studying something that is useful and needed.  To brainstorm, just think about the things you want to fix at K and then develop some questions that you can ask people about.  Bam.

Advice for future students

            My advice for future students would be to not be worried about the project and trust yourself that you know the information. It is a great extra toll to help understand the basics of the class. I encourage students to begin surveying and recording information as soon as possible because it isn’t fun to cram last minute. I would also spend time messing around and learning how to use excel properly because if you don’t know the ins and outs of excel it can add a lot of unnecessary time on working on the project.
            A possible option for future projects could be testing the use of the weight room and whether or not it would be beneficial to improve the weight room equipment. I had a similar idea in mind before continuing with my favorite bar campaign. Surveying K college students was easily accessible and gave us a large enough sample to conduct a proper survey.  

Advice for Future Students

To all future students who take this class, the best advice I can give you is to make sure you have a really good idea from the get go on what your main question/topic is. Also, you should spend a good amount of time really formulating the who(are you surveying), what(do you want to answer), and how(are your going to go about/test it) of your survey. The longer you spend "perfecting" your survey and the more people you test it on, the better off you will be in the long run because if you have a crappy survey, it is just going to make the testing and putting all of the data into excel just that much more difficult. Also, even though everyone knows how busy K students are, really try to put some effort and time into getting a LARGE and RANDOM sample because the larger and more randomized it is, the more likely that your conclusions are going to actually be relevant which = you didn't just put a lot of effort into something that has no point and/or doesn't even answer your main question which =     : D

Future topic:
How much alcohol do K students consume, what are their drink(s) of choice, and how much are they willing to spend on alcohol (priorities)?

Advice for future students

I would strongly recommend spending a lot of time in the early stages of this project making sure you have a base of solid questions and ideas before you make your survey. The longer you spend working on the design and the questions in your survey the easier the rest of the project is going to be. Also try to make sure that whatever topic you find the topic you choose interesting because it will make it a lot easier to carry on with the project if you actually want to work on it.

Possible topic:

Caffein intake of the average student on the Kalamazoo College campus.

Advice for Future Students

There are a couple things that I'd like to recommend for students doing this research project in the future. First, make sure the wording in your survey is such that the question can't be misinterpreted. Otherwise, you can get skewed results. Also, don't wait until the last minute to start your calculations. This was the part that probably took us the longest. They're going to take you much longer than expected. Lastly, I wouldn't recommend using a site like surveymonkey.com, and the sending the survey out to students. We tried using this method and got a very low response rate.

I think an interesting topic could be one in which the idea expands on what we studied with textbooks and spending. I think it would be cool to go more in depth with this and study textbook spending not just in general with students at K, but take a look at spending by major, and look to see who spends the most on books, what majors buy their books where, etc.

Advice for future students

I would like to strongly suggest future students to put their time on designing a survey. Obviously, there was a reason that survey had to be revised twice as it's the most important step in whole survey. Especially, making survey questions! Consider how long it takes and how you can use that question to draw conclusion. And as all the others already said, start the project as early as possible and be ahead of deadlines all the time. 

Possible Topic
College students' spending habits in certain schools - maybe K, WMU and KVCC

Choose something YOU are interested in! It will be NOT FUN if you have to write 20-30 pages report about something boring. 

Project Advice

Some advice that I would spread to the future students is to spread your project over the course of the quarter. Figure out a topic early and brainstorm questions and ideas towards what you think could bring connections and data. The online survey is a good idea although there are many limitations to the programs available without payment. Staying on top of deadlines is key to the project, it will help you greatly at the end when the final pieces are due.

Topics that I would say are good for future research are anything related to the school that students or faculty see as current issues to gain insight on. Also, finding out different opinions among varying demographics or groups is good for comparisons. Since the K population will probably be where you get your sample, find themes for your project which impact immediate school decisions or recent policies that were implemented.  Stepping outside the box and talking to local restaurants or businesses, you could maybe do a project for them on satisfaction. This would bring a different sample and also provide beneficial information for the restaurant/business. 

Advice for future students

My advice for future students in this class would be to start as early as possible on the project. It may take days or even weeks to get enough data once you start surveying people. If you start on this portion of the project early enough, you will probably have a large part of your project done by the time the preliminary results are due. Also, it is definitely a good idea to enter your data into Excel as you go. If you do a few at a time, it’s more manageable than trying to do it all at once. Finally, I would spend some time learning how to use Excel. You can save yourself a lot of time if you figure out how to do descriptive statistics, formulas, and other shortcuts in Excel rather than doing them by hand.

In terms of future project topics, I would consider surveying Kalamazoo College students about their work, study, eating, exercising habits, etc. I found surveying K students to be a good idea because you will have a large population to select from, and the college’s email and campus mail systems make it easy to contact large numbers of people at once. 

Advice for future students

I would suggest using your time wisely on this project. The deadlines are very helpful in staying on top of everything, but from the point of sending out your surveys to turning in your paper it is your job to manage your time. Start the data entry early, it takes way longer than you would expect. Also, do not use Survey Monkey unless you are sure you're okay with the restrictions. It only allows you to ask 10 questions and only see responses from 100 people, it is very frustrating to get 173 responses and only be able to see 100 of them.  Also, if you have any problems with the project, ask the professor, they're always willing to help and give good advice.

An interesting topic to look into would be music habits at K. What type of music people are listening too, how many hours, what are they listening on, did they buy or download the music, etc.

Thursday, March 14, 2013


As far as advice would go, I suggest staying on top of your surveying. When you go throughout the quarter meeting deadlines for this project you can easily be fooled into a false sense of ease when the next deadline is not for two weeks. Do not be fooled that you will need all of this time to not only set up your surveys but to also put the data into excel. Another thing, do not try and figure out excel all on your own. Work in teams and if confused about excel ask the professor. They are more than willing to help and this will save you a lot of time in regards to calculations. Excel is a wonderful tool when doing this project and you should try and use it to the best of your advantage. 
I would suggest the topic of looking at college students that stay up past 1:30 am-2 am on a regular basis. I think this could be very interesting because you could find out how priorities rank in their day and see what kind of results stem from these different sleeping patterns. Then try and relate these sleeping patterns to what kind of jobs they might want to get once graduated. It could lead to a fun and interesting project looking at what area of academics has what trends. 


     My advice to all future students is start this project earlier. Don't ever procrastinate. There are a lot of work, so you have to use your time wisely because there will be works from other classes. Having a partner makes this project so much easier. With your partner, you should brainstorm and get the most creative, the best idea. Getting the random sample is very important. I struggled with this, but you will be able to do your best to make your sample random.
     I would suggest a research project on the relationship between students and their caffeine consumption. Possibly, which major spend the most money? Good luck with this project!


To all future students, use your time wisely.  This project is a lot of work and will take a lot of time.  Obtaining results to your surveys can take many days so make sure you have a large enough sample to work with.  Not everyone will answer either.  The paper is the hardest part of the project, so make sure you start as early as you can on that.  Also, try to work with a partner as this project involves lots of work for just one person to do.

I would suggest doing a project on majors that people are taking or something involving cafe food.

Some thoughts on surveys

My advice to any one attempting to do this project would be to anticipate the results of the survey before distributing it. Are people actually going to know how to respond to these questions or would they even be comfortable with them? Is the topic beyond the scope of an average K College student? Also many underclassmen are not as informed as the majority of the upperclassmen, and selecting the entire campus as the target audience may not yield the best results; many surveys could come up incomplete or be missing key information.

As far as possible topics go try thinking of your favorite extracurricular interest and possibly work it into a topic that would be applicable to a business orientated survey.
Some suggestions are:
-How well can the average student at K handle the costs of having a car on campus?
-How much does the ten year (or five year) plan for the college matter to the students currently enrolled?

Advice and Topics


     For future students taking this course, use your time to your advantage. From the first week you will start getting information on what the requirements on the project are and what the deadlines for the project will be. As most things at K go, your class workload definitely tend to pile up towards the end of the quarter. By utilizing your time early on, it is going to free you up and allow you to go over your project in detail. Also, you will not have as much stress as some of your other classmates that will be pulling all-nighters before the day the project is due. My partner and I took this approach after hearing this advice over and over from other students that took the class, and it was definitely worth it! And lastly, I strongly recommend that you find a partner. Some of my friends did the research project by themselves and were overwhelmed way more than they should have been. So, food for thought.


1. Comparing study time between Athletes and Non-Athletes
2. Parking on campus (always an interesting topic)
3. Why people decided to come to K
4. Thoughts on if students support the new Athletic Field renovations 

Advice For Future Students

I would advise future students to start working on their project as early as possible in order to give them plenty of time to compile and analyze their data. I would also suggest that they figure out how to do all of the equations on Excel as early as possible in order to make the data section of the final paper as easy as possible. I would also suggest that students take good notes during class as they can be a good reference throughout the project process and when reviewing for the exams. I would also advise students to work with a partner, you can divide the work and it helps having someone else to refer to when you're confused or unsure.

Some interesting future projects could be student caffeine consumption, average spending on books, and satisfaction with on-campus food (caf, stacks, and biggbys)

Advice to Future Students

My advice to future students doing this project would be to make sure you do each part with your partner. Don't divide up the work and each do only some parts, because then you won't have as much practice for the exam, and it will hurt your grade. Also, don't be afraid to go ask Chuck questions because it helps a lot. Better to ask him than get something wrong.

A new topic I might suggest for next year would be something involving the cafeteria food. Maybe how satisfied students are with the food or if they would like to see something improved. I think you could get a good feedback because you could focus on people specifically who eat in the caf.

Advice & Topics


For future students I would first suggest to start doing everything early, it leaves much more time for editing or finding solutions to unforeseen problems that may come up. This can apply to all parts of the project, but especially the paper, because it will end up taking much longer than you might think.
I would also suggest to do thorough work on the early assignments for the project, especially the one focusing on finding other sources, as that will help speed up the process of writing the paper when you get to that point. Lastly, I would definitely recommend working with a partner, because this is a long project with a lot of work, and it would help to be able to divide up the work.

1. Why people chose the major that they did, and how many hours of work per week each major does.
2. Compare the majors of athletes and non-athletes
3. Compare the social lives of athletes vs. non-athletes, between dorms, between classes, etc.

Advice and Possible Topics

My Advice
I would advise you future students to take the assignments about the project very seriously because they come in handy when writing out the final project. (Especially the assignment where you have to find outside resources) If you already have these resources and numbers, then your hypothesis tests will be easier to finish for the project. Another piece of advice is that if you are going for a large sample size, ask people in person to fill out your survey because people are more likely to do it when they are facing a real person. Going for a large sample size however is not the most important thing!! When it comes down to it, you are better off focusing your time on making sure your calculations, your regressions, and your analysis are done perfectly. You only get 5 extra points for a large sample size; it would suck to lose points on other parts of the project for those 5 points. Also, choose a partner you can actually work with and don’t be afraid to hold them accountable for their part. Last thing, start at least 4 days before it’s due and go into Chuck’s office/call him as much as you need to. Nothing’s worse than thinking you’re doing everything right and then asking the day before and finding out you need to do something over. Start early and give yourself lots of time to bug Chuck. I know the project seems like a huge stressor, and it is, but it is actually kind of cool once you finish and see what your research found.

Possible Topics
You could study student spending, student sleep habits, student caffeine intake, student eating habits, or all those for professors; you could compare any of these things to Western students. You could study which major costs the most in terms of money on classes and study time and then ask alumni their majors and salaries, and see if the costs are worth it. 

Advice for future students

Advice for future Business Statistics students

I recommend that as soon as you receive anything that has to do with the project you do it as soon as possible because if you put it off it can become real stressful. Early in the quarter the project isn’t that stressful but it gets worse towards the end of the quarter, so make sure to stay on top of the early assignments. If you work on the project little by little and not all at one time then you’ll be in good shape.

            It’s better to start early when it’s time to type up the whole project because that way you can ask your professor questions if you are unsure about anything.
My class was given the choice of working in a group or alone and I recommend that if you are given the same choice you choose a partner because this project is long and tedious enough already so you want someone to split up the work with so it will be a lot easier.

Possible topics

-       - Professor’s salaries in different departments.
-       - Which stores do K students most frequently visit?
-       - Where K students spend most of their Munch Money and which other restaurants should Munch Money include?

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Advicce for Future Students

My main piece of advice to anyone that takes business statistics in the future would be to pick a topic that you have interest in. Due to the time requirements of the project it would start to feel like a never ending drag to have to work on. On the flip side of that if you have interesting topic the hours spent on it do not seem so long. An interesting topic will also help you get to work on each aspect of the project early which I found to be a keep for success. Make sure to start the analysis and paper early because after gathering your survey out there and getting data it can seem that you should wait for more responses, if you are using on online tool, or plans to do more in person requests. From what we found conducting an online survey, almost everyone responded within 48 hours if they were going to respond at all. That being said the deadline for the paper sneaks up on you so make sure to get get started on it as soon as possible.

Here are a few possibilities for future research  projects. However, it is important to remember to choose a topic that will interest you not one that you think will be "easy" because all of these projects will require a substantial time commitment.

1. Based on a few options which type of fast food would you be most inclined to frequent given there was easy access at Hicks center?
2. Who buys apple products vs android and/or windows?
3. Why people choose the residential halls they do?
4. Alternatively you could look at seniors at attempt to figure out the most important reasons they moved off campus and why some stayed.

Advice for Future Business Statistics Students

Here is some advice for students undertaking the Business Statistics project:
-Start early. Knock out every aspect of the project as soon as you can. This will keep you from stressing out and making stupid mistakes.
-Work with a partner. I definitely recommend a partner because theres less work to do than on your own and, as the saying goes, misery loves company. I'd also make sure at least one of you knows how to use excel well. This will make the whole process much easier. 
-Stay Calm. The project may seem overwhelming at times but if you do a little at a time instead of all at once it will be over before you know it. 
-Ask Chuck (or whoever your professor is) for Help. If you don't get something, ask. Chuck is there to help and will help you solve any issue you might be having. 

Possible Topic Ideas:
- Tobacco use at K.
- Car use and Car ownership among K students.
- Which T.V. channels are most popular on K College's cable. This would be nice because it could help the administration figure out what channels to keep, get rid of, and/or add. 

Project Review and Advice

Dear Future Business Stats Students,

Based on my experience with the project, I have two pieces of advice to give:
1. Take the intermediate steps seriously
     -While the project ended up as a success in the end, my group ran into several issues along the      way because we neglected to take the initial survey design, sample selection and data processing seriously. As a result, the last few days before the final paper was due we ran into a few issues that made the work less than enjoyable. Getting a good start early can make the project much more satisfying and a little less strenuous.
2. Start writing the final paper/processing the final data early
    -Unfortunately, my partner and I underestimated how much time actually compiling all the data and running the various statistical tests actually takes. While tests such as a T-test take less than a second on Excel, the actual process of determining what to enter can take far longer. If my group would have began to write and process earlier, our paper would have been much cleaner, absent of mistakes and incorrect interpretation.

A few suggestions for future students:
1. Study what professors, alumni and parents of students think of the fields project. Unfortunately we were unable to survey the above groups and our data was limited to current K students. I think some cool and important results could be found if this topic was undertaken.

2. Study the overall opinion of athletics and its funding at K. An interesting study would be to determine how students feel about athletics and what they feel appropriate funding granted towards sports at K would be. While the administration may not use the results, it would be interesting to determine the general attitude at K towards athletics.

Gender and Spending Habits

When you think of the typical shopper, you are likely to imagine a young woman with a shopping bag in a mall. This is a stereotype that has been associated with women (and youth) for quite a while. Moreover, this association has led to the belief that young adult women spend more money than their masculine counterparts. Is this true? Who actually spends more?


Who spends more at Kalamazoo College, men or women? What kind of products do the sexes purchase? What factors influence these tendencies? 

In this study, I surveyed 28 students at Kalamazoo College. The survey was split into two main sections: 1. General Income and Quarterly Expenditures; 2. Situational Questions. The first section gathered data on hard numbers - how much income each person had/generated, as well as how much they spent on various products per quarter. These products included food/beverages, entertainment, travel, clothing, and monthly payments. The situational questions asked each person several hypothetical questions, like how likely they would be to spend on better hotels, cheaper clothing, better looking cars, and romantic interests.

It turns out that the question, "Who Spends More?" may be too broad. In the end, there was no statistically significant difference between the spending of men and women at KCollege. However, there were still patterns that emerged. Men generally spent more than women, but most generated more income than women. Still, men on average spent a larger percentage of their income. Statistically, more men were employed (part-time) than women. Men spent significantly more on entertainment and food/beverages, and women spent significantly more on clothing. 

The situational questions also pointed out some very interesting tendencies. Women were more likely to: spend on clothes that they did not initially intend to buy; buy a good-looking, used car with many miles; be charitable to the homeless; spend more on a hotel to for its superior location. Women varied less in their responses than men, which is why I could draw some of these patterns. Men, on the other hand, had very different responses to many of the questions; some were extremely likely to give into peer pressure and others were unaffected. One tendency that most men agreed on, though, was spending more money on a romantic interest, while women were more likely to have different opinions on the matter. Interesting stuff.

The Facts

While this project is challenging and often quite stressful, you should know that Professor Stull is always available for advice and encouragement. At the first sign of a potential delay to your progress, pay him a visit and you will be back on track in no time.
The work itself is very manageable and I would recommend starting relatively early, at least on your sampling. Once you have collected and entered all of your data, the next most time consuming part is the chart making and calculations of variables. A neat Excel document will come in handy when comparing variables. I recommend saving copies of your raw data in a separate document entirely, should you do irreversible damage to your spreadsheet.
The project can be done alone, but I suggest choosing a partner to split up the tedious tasks, which can often take several hours. On average, my partner and I needed two hours for every 40 samples we collected. If you wish to have a large sample size, you and your partner should split up and do the sampling separately. Also, when it comes to analyzing data and graphs, partners can be extremely helpful as they often see things that you might have overlooked.
Make sure your questions prompt numeric answers. Qualitative data has its place in this project, but the bulk of your calculations will rely on numbers. Additionally, Excel hates qualitative data. I rue the day that I put yes and no into cells.
Before you make any rash decisions on what you would like to study, make sure you are passionate or at least somewhat interested in what you will be working on for several weeks. An interesting prompt makes the time fly by and in the long run produces more satisfying results. 

Advice for Future Students

The best advice would be to start surveying early... as soon as the final draft is complete. Survey a bit at a time; don't try to tackle the whole sample at once. Also, input your data into excel as you go, don't wait for a 3 hour chunk of time to do it all at once, especially if you want a sample of 100+ people.

Find a partner with equal excel skills as you. Your time spent on the project will be used much more efficiently that way. If you both don't know how to use excel, you can learn together. Otherwise, if one person is better than the other, the highly skilled person will spend more time teaching the other person how to use excel than it would take to do it alone.

If you know how to use excel well, and can't find a partner with equal excel skills, don't be afraid to tackle this project independently. As long as you start surveying early, and in chunks, you will be fine! :)

Future studies:
-Other alternatives for food on campus besides Delux Esto (formerly known as stacks) and Biggby.
-Top stores around kzoo
-Which stores should be closer to campus, farther away
-Typical transportation methods and frequency
-Spending vs working of work study students vs non scholarship students
-Is the bar experience better than staying in with friends

Kalamazoo College students watch less television but more online than the average American.

A survey recently completed by Nicholas Wood and Liz Robison at Kalamazoo college found that the average Kalamazoo College student will watch more shows online than the typical American. A study conducted by Schonfeld earlier last year claimed that on average an American will watch only 27 minutes a week or just under half an hour. The findings of our study vastly differ from that of Schonfeld's as we found that Kalamazoo college students will watch an average of nearly 5 hours a week. There are many reasons why this might be the case. We at Kalamazoo college likely have more free time as well as better access to the internet and the benefit of being one of the main consumers that most online programming is intended for.
However, some of these theories contradict the findings that Kalamazoo college students watch less television than Americans. The same study say that Americans will watch over 30 hours of television a week while we only found that Kalamazoo college students watched only one and a half hours. Some of the reasons that explain these two gaps could be that since most college students have a limited income and therefore default to watching online illegally where they can watch for free and at their own confidence.
All that might be interesting to you but if you are like me you probably think along the lines of what rather than how much. Our survey also asked people questions about what they preferred to watch. The findings were that live action shows and movies were greatly preferred to cartoons and sports. As one might expect upon closer examination of people preference in sports there was a large gap in the opinions of men and woman. so surprisingly though is that there is also a difference preference of live action shows between genders with woman preferring it to men. This gap is almost as large as the one seen between men and sports. Unfortunately this study was not able to determine preferences between gender for the other two types of programming. This is not from lack of data as the survey was conducted on a large scale. To insure the best possible results we built a automated computer program to send out completely random emails. As a result of this we guaranteed a completely random sample without biased as well as had a large sample size of over 200 students.
Nick Wood

Tuesday, March 12, 2013

Project Advice

The best advice I could give to future students doing this project is to simply start right away and aim to get a sample of over 100 people. (We physically went to 109 people.) If you're wondering how you can get an A, besides a good write-up and correct equations at the end, getting a large sample shows how much effort you truly put into this project.

An interesting topic I'd like to see covered in a future statistics project would be: What factors go into the ideal college party? This could be something interesting. I'd love to see how the K community responds to something like that.


The main advice that I would give to a student taking this course would just be to stay on top of the deadlines Chuck gives you. They are easily doable and if you follow them you won't be overly stressed by the project. Also doing a survey on how satisfied students are with their colleges would be an interesting survey (assuming you can get data from other colleges).

Monday, March 11, 2013

The Future of the Labor Movement in Trouble?

A study regarding current college students’ views and awareness of workers’ rights and labor unions occurred last week in Kalamazoo, Michigan.  About 57 students from the small, private liberal arts college participated, the majority of them (66.96%) believed that unions are an important force in society.

Students were given a statement and were asked to share their opinion from strongly disagree to strongly agree in a scaled response fashion.  The sample size was randomly selected by courses: Spanish, Mathematics, and a History class, and course level: beginner, intermediate, and advanced. 

Logic dictates that student majors who are immersed in Business and Economic courses would have a different perspective of unions than majors in the Social Sciences.  According to the study, there was no significant difference found between union favorability and major.  Both majors were found to have similar opinions regarding unions. 

On the other hand, significant data was found that female students have higher positive union attitudes than male students.  The average score for a female was 49.82 percent and that of a male student was 43.92 percent.  After accounting for the sampling error the data was still found to be reliable.  Therefore the idea of females and males having the same union attitudes can be rejected and that their opinions vary can be assumed.

Not only are college students today the future of the labor market, but also the future of labor unions.  Teenage and young adults in college are in a crucial period of transformation in their lives, as they develop their knowledge and opinions about the real world, they become closer to make a life of their own. 

With an averaged response of “neutral” to each particular statement on the questionnaire, it seems like labor unions have some educating to do.

K Student Textbook Spending

A study on students from Kalamazoo College and their textbook purchasing was recently conducted. The study focused on the methods students used in purchasing textbooks for one quarter, and their satisfaction with these methods. The students studied were randomly selected from every grade.

Results of the survey included 91.18% of students purchasing books, and of that percent 83.87% of the sample purchased from the K College Bookstore, and 70.97% using an online retailer. Although more students purchased books from the college bookstore, the average price spent on textbooks at the K College Bookstore was $131.67 as opposed to $98.95 using an online retailer. The difference between these averages is $32.72. Another interesting question asked was the students level of satisfaction with the market they chose to buy from on a scale of 1-10, 10 being the best. The K College Bookstore's average satisfaction was 6.17, while the online retailer's average was greater at 7.92.

In conclusion, many students appear to be using online retailers, and they're saving a good amount of money doing so. Additionally, the student's satisfaction in using online retailers is on the higher end of the scale as opposed to the K College Bookstore falling just above a middle, mediocre satisfaction level. Students can learn from this study that they can save some money through purchasing books online, and most college students definitely need whatever money they can get.